Lewis E. Waterman started manufacturing the “Ideal” pen in 1883, having invented a feed which solved the problem of vapor lock by successfully replacing ink in the barrel with air so the pen would keep on writing. Business was good and grew steadily. By 1901 the company was producing over 1000 pens per day. All pens were either black or mottled red & black hard rubber, so manufacturers adorned many with paint, metal, leather, pearl or abalone to differentiate one from another and offer the consumer more variety. Sheaffer then introduced the first plastic pen in 1924. While other manufacturers quickly joined the plastics bandwagon, Waterman resisted, having recently perfected the technique of producing hard rubber pens in color. Red Ripple and Woodgrain (1923) were the most popular, while other colors included Cardinal, Rose Ripple, Blue/Green Ripple and Olive Ripple. In 1927 the Red Ripple #7 pens were introduced, with a color banding system on the caps to identify the various nib styles available for the consumer. Unfortunately for Waterman, consumers flocked to the vibrant colors offered by others in plastic rather than to their rubber offerings. In 1929 Waterman introduced their first plastic pens, the large Patrician and the slightly smaller Model #94 lines. With these offerings, and others which followed, Waterman maintained a significant place in the fountain pen industry.